Periconception glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes and risk of major birth defects

Researchers studied a possible correlation between type 1 diabetes in women and major birth defects in their offspring. National healthy registries in Sweden identified 2,458 infants born during 2003–15 to type 1 diabetics who underwent an A1C check of their blood glucose levels within 3 months before or after conceiving.

Researchers studied a possible correlation between type 1 diabetes in women and major birth defects in their offspring. National healthy registries in Sweden identified 2,458 infants born during 2003–15 to type 1 diabetics who underwent an A1C check of their blood glucose levels within 3 months before or after conceiving. For comparison, the databases also compiled a control group of nearly 1.6 million babies born alive to mothers without diabetes. The incidence of major cardiac defects was 33 per 1,000 infants in the maternal diabetes cohort vs. 15 per 1,000 in the maternal nondiabetic cohort. The risk escalated exponentially from 33 per 1,000 infants at A1C measurements of less than 6.5%—a level considered to be controlled—to 101 per 1,000 infants at A1C readings of 9.1% or higher. The difference in the incidence of major noncardiac effects between the two groups, meanwhile, was considered statistically insignificant at 22 and 18 per 1,000 babies, respectively.